Basic approaches that have evolved over time to improve productivity

Human Relations Contributors

Frederick Herzberg

2 Factor Hygiene and Motivation Theory

Frederick Herzberg, contributed to human relations and motivation two theories of motivation as follows:

  • Hygiene Theory
  • Motivation

Herzbergs' first component in his approach to motivation theory involves what are known as the hygiene factors and includes the work and organizational environment. These hygiene factors include:

  • The organization
  • Its policies and its administration
  • The kind of supervision (leadership and management, including perceptions) which people receive while on the job
  • Working conditions (including ergonomics)
  • Interpersonal relations
  • Salary
  • Status
  • Job security

These factors do not lead to higher levels of motivation but without them there is dissatisfaction.

The second component in Herzbergs' motivation theory involves what people actually do on the job and should be engineered into the jobs employees do in order to develop intrinsic motivation with the workforce. The motivators are

  • Achievement
  • Recognition
  • Growth / advancement
  • Interest in the job

These factors result from internal instincts in employees, yielding motivation rather than movement.

Both these approaches (hygiene and motivation) must be done simultaneously. Treat people as best you can so they have a minimum of dissatisfaction. Use people so they get achievement, recognition for achievement, interest, and responsibility and they can grow and advance in their work.

Therefore, the hygiene and motivation factors can be listed as follows:

Hygiene

  • Company policies and administration
  • Supervision
  • Working conditions and interpersonal relations
  • Salary, status and security

Motivators

  • Achievement
  • Recognition for achievement
  • Interest in the task
  • Responsibility for enlarged task
  • Growth and advancement to higher level tasks

Effects on Individuals of Working Environment

The working environment has an effect on individuals as follows:

  • It will provide at least sufficient for his basic needs and often much more. For example, 50 years ago in the United Kingdom, food and shelter were a person's basic needs. Today, most families will consider that the basic needs also include a car, television, overseas holiday, etc.
  • It may or may not provide adequate security. Again, most individuals seek a secure job, there are others including some men on oil rigs, who seek high pay for a limited period but with limited security.
  • It provides an individual with an identity. As a member of an organization, he carries out a specific function.
  • It also gives the worker comradeship, freedom from boredom, and an interest during his working life.
  • It also provides self-fulfillment for individual where consideration has been given to ensure that the job is creative and gives job satisfaction.
  • It provides the individual with status. There is a status in all jobs providing the job content is investigated to make the work more interesting.

Effects on Work Groups of Working Environment

Rensis Likert has already described how the various management styles in an organization can effect the groups in an organization.

Whilst the working environment will affect individuals, it will undoubtedly have a greater effect on working groups, since whilst an individual may have certain needs, he will not obtain those needs if the working environment does not provide the needs of the working group.

The working group is the instrument of society through which in large measure the individual acquires his attitudes, opinions, goals and ideals, it is also one of the fundamental sources of discipline and social controls.

Therefore, the working environment has an effect on groups as follows:

  • It will affect the morale of the group.
  • It will determine whether the group achieves the objectives set by the organization.
  • It will determine whether the degree of cooperation provided by the group
  • It will motivate the group to give of their best.
  • It will determine whether the human relations within an organization are good or bad.
  • It will also affect the relations between management and trade unions.

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