Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity

Self-fulfilling prophecy or pygmalion effect at work

Better Management by Perception

N.B. The full version of these examples of how teachers and managers communicate expections is available (for commercial reasons) in the PDF version available.

How teachers communicate expectations

  • Seating low expectation students far from the teacher and/or seating them in a group
  • Paying less attention to lows in academic situations (smiling less often, maintaining less eye contact, etc.)
  • Calling on lows less often to answer questions or to make public demonstrations
  • Waiting less time for lows to answer questions
  • Not staying with lows in failure situations (e g. providing fewer clues, asking fewer follow-up questions)
  • Criticizing lows (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Praising lows (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Praising lows (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Providing lows with less (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Failing to provide lows (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Demanding less (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Interrupting lows (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)

How managers communicate expectations

  • Seating low-expectation employees in low-prestige office areas far from the manager
  • Paying less attention to lows in business situations (smiling less often and maintaining less eye contact).
  • Giving them less information about what's going on in the department.
  • Calling on lows less often to work on special projects, state their opinions, or give presentations
  • Waiting less time for lows to state their opinions
  • Not staying with lows in failure (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Criticizing lows more (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Praising lows less frequently (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Praising lows more frequently (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Providing lows with less accurate (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Failing to provide lows with (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Demanding less work and (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)
  • Interrupting lows (… rest available in PDF version- see sidebar)

 

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