In this section we have looked at traditional as well as more recent approaches to the design of jobs and work organization.
Criteria applied when making decisions about jobs and work organization were criticized by Louis Davis, in the 1950's, for more or less ignoring the social and psychological needs of job holders. Whilst there is now a much greater awareness of these aspects, those responsible for designing systems often are forced to operate within narrow parameters.
Decisions made earlier by designers of manufacturing equipment often impose constraints on the choices available at the later stage. However, whilst recognizing these constraints it would appear that those responsible for job design are still dominated in their decisions by those factors criticized by Davis.
The challenge facing managers now and in the future, is that of employing the new technology with all its opportunities in ways which not only meet the organization's needs but also the expectations and aspirations of employees.
In order to achieve this more effectively there is the need to further develop these approaches to job and work organization design which facilitate these broader criteria being incorporated into the design process as well as the tools with which to achieve the task.
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